Title 21 United States Code (USC) Controlled Substances Act (CSA) prohibits the use of illicit drugs and actions related to the abuse of alcohol. According to Title 21 USC Part D – Offences and Penalties 841. Prohibited Acts A: Unlawful acts except as authorized by this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally:
- To manufacture, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to distribute or dispense, a counterfeit substance or
- To create, distribute, or dispense, or possess with intent to distribute or dispense, a counterfeit substance.
The drugs and or other substances considered under the USC Controlled Substances Act are divided into five schedules. The schedules are updated on a yearly basis and a complete list is published annually in Title 21 Cod of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1308.11 through 1208.15. The substances are categorized or placed into their respective schedules based on
- Whether they have currently accepted medical use in treatment in the U.S.;
- Their relative abuse potential; and
- The likelihood of causing dependence when abused.
Some examples of the drugs in each schedule are described below. The following information is intended to provide a examples of general references and is not a complete listing of controlled substances.
Examples of Drugs in Each Schedule
|SCHEDULE||TYPE OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Title 21 United States Code (USC) Controlled Substances Act (CSA)|
|Schedule I Controlled Substances||Substances in this schedule have no currently accepted medical use in the United States, a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and a high potential for abuse. Some examples of substances listed in Schedule I are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, methaqualone, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“Ecstasy”).|
|Schedule II/IIN Controlled Substances (2/2N)||Substances in this schedule have a high potential for abuse which may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Examples of Schedule II narcotics include: hydromorphone (Dilaudid®), methadone (Dolophine®), meperidine (Demerol®), oxycodone (OxyContin®, Percocet®), and fentanyl (Sublimaze®, Duragesic®). Other Schedule II narcotics include: morphine, opium, codeine, and hydrocodone. Examples of Schedule IIN stimulants include: amphetamine (Dexedrine®, Adderall®), methamphetamine (Desoxyn®), and methylphenidate (Ritalin®). Other Schedule II substances include: amobarbital, glutethimide, and pentobarbital.|
|Schedule III/IIIN Controlled Substances (3/3N)||Substances in this schedule have a potential for abuse less than substances in Schedules I or II and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Examples of Schedule III narcotics include: products containing not more than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with Codeine®), and buprenorphine (Suboxone®). Examples of Schedule IIIN non-narcotics include: benzphetamine (Didrex®), phendimetrazine, ketamine, and anabolic steroids such as Depo®-Testosterone.|
|Schedule IV Controlled Substances||Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III. Examples of Schedule IV substances include: alprazolam (Xanax®), carisoprodol (Soma®), clonazepam (Klonopin®), clorazepate (Tranxene®), diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), midazolam (Versed®), temazepam (Restoril®), and triazolam (Halcion®|
|Schedule V Controlled Substances||Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse relative to substances listed in Schedule IV and consist primarily of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Examples of Schedule V substances include: cough preparations containing not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams (Robitussin AC®, Phenergan with Codeine®), and ezogabine.|
|Penalties||Penalties for violations are determined by the schedule of the drug or other substance and or sometimes specified by drug name, i.e., marijuana. A substance doesn’t have to be listed as controlled substance to be treated as a Schedule I substance for criminal prosecution. Penalties may include fines up to $10 million (for an individual) or $50 million (other than individual) or both, and or a term of imprisonment up to life.|